Is It Possible to Change the Firmware of the Smg9550

Is It Possible to Change the Firmware of the Smg9550

Software produced past hobbyists and amateur developers

Homebrew, when applied to
video games, refers to games produced by hobbyists for proprietary
video game consoles
which are not intended to be user-programmable. The official documentation is frequently only available to licensed developers, and these systems may utilize storage formats that brand distribution difficult, such every bit ROM cartridges or encrypted CD-ROMs. Many consoles have
hardware restrictions
to prevent unauthorized development. A non-professional person developer for a organization intended to be user-programmable, similar the
Commodore 64, is simply called a
(rather than a
homebrew developer).

Homebrew development tin can include software made using unofficial, community maintained
or games developed using official development kits such as
Net Yaroze,
Linux for PlayStation ii, or
Microsoft XNA.

Some targets for homebrew games include the
Nintendo Wii,
Game Boy Advance,
PlayStation two,
PlayStation 3,
PlayStation 4,
PlayStation Portable,
PlayStation Vita/PlayStation TV,
PlayStation Archetype,
Nintendo Entertainment Organisation
Atari 2600.



New games for older systems are typically developed using
emulators. Development for newer systems normally involves actual hardware, given the lack of accurate
emulators. Efforts have been made to use actual panel hardware for many older systems, though.
Atari 2600
programmers may burn an
to plug into a custom
board or apply audio transfer via the
Starpath Supercharger.
Game Boy Advance
developers have several means to apply
GBA flash cartridges
in this regard.

First generation consoles




In 2009,
became the first game for the
Magnavox Odyssey
since 1973. It was produced by Robert Vinciguerra

who has since written several other Odyssey games. On July 11, 2011,
was published by Chris Read.

Second generation consoles


Atari 2600


Aqueduct F


A handful of games take been programmed for the
Fairchild Channel F, the first console to use ROM cartridges. The showtime known release is Sean Riddle’southward clone of

Lights Out

which included instructions on how to change the SABA#20 Chess game into a Multi-Cartridge.

In that location is also a version of
and in 2008 “Videocart 27:
Pac-Man” became the offset full production game for the system since it was discontinued.

Third and fourth generation consoles




Several compilers are bachelor for the
Nintendo Entertainment System, just similar the Atari 2600, most development is washed in 6502 associates linguistic communication. I impediment to NES homebrew development is the relative difficulty involved with producing concrete cartridges, although third-party flash carts do be, making homebrew possible on original NES hardware.

Several varieties of custom processors are used within NES cartridges to expand organisation capabilities; most are difficult to replicate except past scavenging old cartridges.

While the original
and its clones can play unlicensed games, the
hardware lock-out mechanism of the NES complicates the production of physical cartridges. The 10NES flake can be permanently disabled past performing a small modify to the hardware. Nintendo’s
New-Style NES
lacks the 10NES chip.



Sega Genesis
has no concrete lockout mechanism, making information technology easier to release software for the system.

Rick Unsafe

Rick Dangerous ii

Pier Solar and the Smashing Architects
, and a port of
Teenage Queen
were released every bit physical cartridges. Other games include
Sacred Line Genesis,
Coffee Crisis, and
Frog Feast
for the Genesis and
Mighty Mighty Missile
for the
Sega Mega-CD. The 2018 game


was developed using original Sega development hardware.

TurboGrafx-16/PC Engine


TurboGrafx-16/PC Engine
has a comparatively small homebrew scene. The first homebrew title released on CD was
in 2002, a few years later on the arrangement’s last official release (Dead Of The Brain I & II
for the PC Engine in 1999). Two years later, MindRec released
Meteor Blaster DX
on CD-R. Official word was that information technology was unable to be pressed to CD proper due to the glass mastering software suddenly unable to handle the unorthodox style of CD layout that the system expects. V years later on, Aetherbyte Studios released
Insanity, a
clone, on pressed CD, quelling the notion of unpressable CDs. Aetherbyte later went on to prototype and produce a new
design called “AbCARD“, which was fully compatible with the console.

There is one C compiler for the panel known every bit HuC. Information technology has not been officially updated since 2005. The MagicKit assembler is generally considered[

past whom?


the de facto assembler for the panel, and comes included with HuC. Additional libraries for HuC/MagicKit include Squirrel, a sound engine developed by Aetherbyte Studios, and the SGX/ACD library, developed by Tomatheous, that gives the developer easy access to the
video hardware likewise every bit the Arcade Carte.

C compiler is compatible with the console, although there is no development library support for it.



Bung Enterprises released the Game Doc SF hardware serial. It allows users to re-create games and run new games on SNES hardware. ROMs can be converted into the Game Physician SF format and put onto a
iii i/2″ floppy. Games every bit large as twelve
can be put on floppy disks formatted to 1.6 megabytes.

An alternative device is the Super Wink, past Tototek, which allows multiple games to exist burned onto a flash memory flake in a cartridge. This allows games as large every bit 48 megabits.

The run and gun game,
Alisha’s Adventure, used original Super Famicom development hardware.

Neo-Geo MVS, AES, and CD


The Neo-Geo Domicile Cart and Arcade Systems tin can be tough candidates for homebrew development. Neo-Geo AES and MVS cartridges have ii dissever boards: one for video, and one for sound. If programming a cartridge for the arrangement were to occur, it would involve replacing the old ROM chips with 1’s newly programmed ones every bit the cartridges are in a sense, Arcade boards. NGDevTeam who have released

Fast Striker



found a workaround with this. What they did was print out their own board, and soldered their own ROM fries into them; this, however, can cause the Universe Bios logo to await corrupted if a custom bios were to be programmed. Programming for the Neo-Geo CD, however is easier than programming for cartridges. The CDs themselves can actually incorporate both sound and video respectively. Depending on the Megabit count for a game program, load times will vary. A CD game with low Megabit counts will load only ane time; whereas a CD game with higher megabit counts could load in betwixt scenes, or rounds. At that place are now some full games scheduled[



for release in concrete form, such as
Neo Xyx.[

commendation needed



Programmer of the Neo-Geo Universe Bios, Razoola is currently[



working on a “Skeleton Game Driver” that supports two players. This ROM is meant to remedy the corrupted Universe Bios Screens, too as work with an unmodified/stock Neo-Geo Multi-Video System (MVS), or Avant-garde Entertainment Arrangement (AES).

Fifth generation consoles




The offset hobbyist-developed
Atari Jaguar
game was released in 1995: a version of


JSTetris. It was written using a hacked version of the Alpine Development Kit, ane of the pieces of hardware used to program official Jaguar games.

Subsequently purchasing all the intellectual belongings assets of
Atari Corporation
in 1998,

Hasbro Interactive, on May 14, 1999, announced that they have released all rights to the Jaguar, declaring the console an
open platform.


Post-obit the announcement, a few developers and publishers, such as
AtariAge, B&C Computervisions,
Piko Interactive, Songbird Productions,
Telegames, and Video61, take released both previously unfinished games from the Jaguar’southward past as well as several make new games.

Since emulation of the panel is however limited, coding uses a existent console through either the Skunkboard development cartridge, using a BJL modified Jaguar, or the official Alpine Development Kit. The commercial game

BattleSphere Gold
, likewise contains the JUGS (Jaguar Unmodified Game Server) aid to development.

Games are released in either
CD–or both–formats. Most developers take published their works either online on forums or in cartridge via independent publishers. Since both systems practice not have
regional locking, all of the titles are
region costless. Some of the earliest CD releases were non
encrypted, requiring either B&C’south Jaguar CD Bypass Cartridge

or Reboot’south Jagtopia (Freeboot) program burned into a CD in club to run unencrypted CD games,

but Curt Vendel of Atari Museum released the binaries and encryption keys for both the cartridge and CD format, making it possible to run games without the demand of development hardware.

A croaky
of the Jaguar CD tin be
within the system.

In that location are also
ST-to-Jaguar conversions, which involves porting titles from the
Atari ST
to the Jaguar, which may include some enhancements.

While they can be downloaded for gratis, select titles were sold on August 3, 2016



and others, every bit of date, are beingness licensed and sold in festivals dedicated to the system such as E-JagFest, JagFest or online via



Making games on the PlayStation is possible with any model of the system through the utilize of a
or the double ‘Swap Pull a fast one on’. There is also a softmod/save game exploit called “tonyhax” Requirements consist of a
SDK, and a ‘Comms Link’ device to upload and download files to and from the console.

Another way of starting homebrew on the PlayStation is ‘UniROM’, which is a Softmod. UniROM works by being installed onto a cheat-device, which is connected via the parallel-port (on old consoles) and allows loading of custom code via burned CDs and the serial port.

Homebrew was originally promoted by Sony with the
Net Yaroze, which had a large scene for quite some fourth dimension. Yet, the official Net Yaroze site was shut down in mid-2009, and Sony stopped supporting the system also equally the users who still endemic the console.



All models of the
Sega Saturn
tin can be used for hobbyist development.
for the Saturn Model 1 have been scarce for some time, equally it seems that no one has produced whatever new modchips in years. Equally such, the only two options left are to either perform the swap trick or extensively change a Saturn Model 2 modchip.

Running homebrew on the Model 2 can exist accomplished by bridging two points on the modchip, soldering a wire from the modchip to the Saturn power supply, and inserting it where the CD-ROM ribbon cable inserts. The swap trick is more difficult to pull off on this Model due to the lack of an access light.

Another method is what is known as the “PseudoSaturn” unlocking method. It is a program created by CyberWarrior2000 that abuses the “Pro Action Replay” cartridge’south firmware. It unlocks region, frequency, and CD protection of most Saturn models. Either a modded Saturn or a swap trick is required to run the installer, which loads the code in the FlashROM of the cartridge. Subsequently, the cartridge unlocks everything and near software tin can be run, from backups to homebrews. There is as well now a new engine for development called the Jo-Engine created by Johannes Fetz to allow piece of cake development of second games.

This engine is currently able to compile 2nd games without the Sega Graphic Libraries (SGL). Some other engine by XL2, called the Z-Treme engine, led to the creation of a fully 3D Sonic The Hedgehog game called Sonic Z-Treme.

Z-Treme uses Sega Bones Libraries (SBL) and Sega Graphic Libraries (SGL).

Virtual Boy


Virtual Male child
has no region lock, just it wasn’t until the
wink carts
FlashBoy and FlashBoy+ were released that the homebrew scene began to grow. Two previously unreleased games,

Bound High!

Niko-Chan Boxing
(the Japanese version of

) have been released.

Nintendo 64


Nintendo 64
homebrew scene is small, but homebrew can still be played and developed through the use of a
Dr. V64, (Acclamation used a Doctor V64 to assistance develop Turok,
) the Everdrive 64

or 64drive.

Sixth generation consoles




Despite its short commercial lifespan of less than two years in North America, the
benefits from an active homebrew scene fifty-fifty x years after its discontinuation. Due to a flaw in the Dreamcast
BIOS, which was intended for use with
MIL-CD‘southward, the console can run software from
without the use of a modchip. Sega reacted by removing MIL-CD support from the BIOS of the later produced Dreamcast consoles manufactured from November 2000 onwards.

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The console is especially notable for its commercial homebrew scene. 1 notable projection was the
emulator, which was a series of bootdisks made to play
games on the system, featuring visual enhancements over the original console. Newer independent releases include

Concluding Hope
, released by RedSpotGames in 2007, and


Shoot ’em up
fashion games. These releases were written using the KallistiOS development organization. A port of the freeware high-level development linguistic communication
is bachelor for use in game evolution; many DIV Games Studio games have been ported and others were originally written for the system.

PlayStation two


Early versions of the
PlayStation 2
have a
buffer overflow
bug in the part of the BIOS that handles PS1 game compatibility; hackers constitute a way to turn this into a loophole called the PS2 Independence Exploit, assuasive the use of homebrew software. Another option for homebrew development is the use of a
modchip. Likewise, it is possible for developers to utilize a PS2 hard bulldoze and
Hard disk drive Loader. In
and Australia, the PS2 came with a gratis
interpreter on the bundled demo disc for some time. This allows simple programs to be created for the PS2 by the end-user. This was included in a failed attempt to circumvent a UK taxation past defining the panel as a “computer” if it contained certain software.

A port of the
projection and
BlackRhino GNU/Linux, an alternative
Debian-based distribution, are also available for the PS2.

Using homebrew programs (e.g. ‘SMS Media Player’
) it is possible to heed to diverse audio file formats (MP3,
Ogg Vorbis,
AC3), and lookout various video formats (DivX/XviD,
AVI Container) using the console. Media can exist played from any device connected to the console i.e. external
USB/FireWire/pollex drive/hard deejay drive (FAT32
just), the internal hard disk on early revision consoles, optical CD-R(Westward)/DVD±R(West) disks (modded systems or patched disks), or network shares (Windows Network
or PS2 host: protocol).

A more contempo development (May 2008) chosen Gratuitous McBoot allows homebrew programs to be launched without a trigger disc required by the older exploit. This besides allows use of homebrew on unmodded systems without a functional disc drive. However, installation of the exploit to each individual memory card requires either an already exploited/modded arrangement in lodge to launch the installer, or kicking image that can load an app that loads ELF files (network adapter and hard bulldoze besides required). Copying from one retentiveness card to another will not work. This newer exploit volition not work on the very newest PS2s (SCPH-9000x model with BIOS ii.30 and up) but volition work on all models prior to that. The newest versions of Free McBoot, version 1.90 and newer, also have the ability to install and boot from both Sony and not-Sony HDDs when using a “fat” PS2 and network adapter.

This back up is called Free HDBoot or FHDB. With a few minor issues, it is now possible to game entirely from the HDD, without needing to use the optical disc bulldoze nor a physical retentiveness card.

Unlike the Independence Exploit, which requires a trigger disk, Gratis McBoot needs just a standard Retentivity Menu, which allows information technology to be used on systems with broken optical drives. The installation is keyed to the Memory Card and will exist usable on only the aforementioned version consoles that it was originally installed on, unless a Multi-Install is performed. The drawback of this exploit is that it needs to exist installed/compiled on each individual memory bill of fare. But copying the exploit is not possible; this ways that an already modded or exploited system is required to install FMCB on a Retention Card. Later installing an exploit, unsigned executables (Executable and Linkable Format) may be launched from a Retentiveness Bill of fare or a USB drive. Such programs include emulators, media players, hard bulldoze management tools, and PC-based or NAS-based file shares. The exploit is also notable for allowing the user to copy PS1/PS2 relieve files from a Memory Card to a USB drive, a functionality usually but possible with tools such as a

Sony released a
Linux-based operating system for the PS2
in a package that also includes a
adapter and HDD. Currently, Sony’s online store states that the Linux kit is no longer for sale in
N America. However, as of July 2005, the European version was still available. The kit boots past installing a proprietary interface, the
run-time environment, which is on a region-coded
DVD, and so the European and Due north America kits only work with a PS2 from their respective regions.

Homebrew emulators of older computer and gaming systems have been developed for the PS2.



Homebrew development on the
Nintendo GameCube
tended to be difficult, since it uses a proprietary
MiniDVD-based drive and media every bit opposed to the standard DVD drives of the PS2 and Xbox for piracy protection. Too, its connectivity is express, as it does not feature a USB port or an HDD port like the PlayStation two.

The barrier to burning Nintendo GameCube discs with a consumer DVD burner is the
Flare-up Cutting Area, a “barcode” in the innermost band of the disc, an area inaccessible to almost burners and writeable just by very expensive disc pressing machines. For a long time the only way to run homebrew software on Nintendo GameCube was through a patching-arrangement exploit of

Phantasy Star Online Episode I & II
, requiring users to find the game and a Broadband Adapter. Both of these are difficult to find considering a follow-up has been released (under the name

Phantasy Star Online Episode I & II Plus
) and thus the original PSO was rarely sold after then, and because the Broadband Adapter was not frequently carried in stores due to the Nintendo GameCube’s very limited choice of online games.

Equally of Baronial 2019, the almost common method is to use an Activity Replay in conjunction with an SD carte adapter inserted into the retentiveness bill of fare slot, allowing the user to run homebrew from the SD card, or over Ethernet. Another method involves using a modchip to allow the GameCube to run homebrew from a MiniDVD-R via the disc drive. Some other method uses a save game exploit which involves transferring modified game save files to a GameCube retentivity menu that triggers arbitrary code execution when loaded by an official game, allowing custom software to be run from a memory bill of fare, SD carte du jour, or other media.

Equally the Nintendo GameCube’southward case does not fit a full-size DVD-R, third party replacement cases are available.

Homebrew software for the Nintendo GameCube mainly consists of emulators for other systems, likewise as several pop homebrew utilities.
is an “all-in-one homebrew utility”, including a file browser, and the ability to force software to employ different video modes that aren’t officially supported, such as progressive scan or 16:9 widescreen.

Game Boy Interface
is a homebrew software frontend for the Game Boy Player peripheral, and is often used for capturing loftier-quality footage from Game Male child, Game Boy Color, and Game Boy Accelerate games.



with a modchip installed

console uses several measures, including cryptographically signed lawmaking to obfuscate firmware. The primary method of executing homebrew code required installing a
mod chip
which could be flashed with a modified Microsoft
BIOS. This BIOS allowed the arrangement to kick unsigned executables (XBEs) and control several hardware variables, such as region coding and video fashion. With the leak of Microsoft’s official evolution kit (XDK), homebrew coders were able to write replacement Xbox GUIs (known as dashboards), games and applications for the Xbox.

softmod, which uses a commercial game such as

007: Amanuensis Nether Fire

Mech Set on
, or

Splinter Cell
, had been created to execute a persistent softmod installer without modification of the hardware. This method utilizes modified font and sound files to cause the Xbox to cause a
stack buffer overflow
and load a homebrew dashboard. Once in this condition, the Xbox is able to execute homebrew games and applications upon kicking up.

Due to the Xbox using standard PC libraries, writing homebrew games is relatively easy and the vast majority of libraries bachelor for a PC developer are bachelor to an Xbox homebrew programmer.

One of the more common type of homebrew games for the Xbox are ports of PC games whose source has been publicly released or leaked. Many classic PC games have been released for Xbox, only most are created with the XDK which limits their availability. The only places to find these ports are through

The Xbox system is also very skilful at running
which have been ported from PC, given its high processing ability. The Xbox is able to emulate systems up to the previous generation, including the
Nintendo 64
and the
PlayStation. For this reason, many unlike emulators have been created for or ported to the Xbox.

Game Boy Accelerate


The popularity of homebrew development for the Game Boy Advance system since its release in 2001 is due to the availability of C compilers and ready-made, high-quality code libraries, and debugging features for Game Boy Advance emulators like the VisualBoyAdvance-M, the mgba, the No$gba GBA Emulator, John GBA and My Boy. Besides contributing to the success is both the nostalgia for the organization in general, the Pokémon Romhacking community, and the broad availability of Flash ROM cartridges and cartridge writers in online shops.

7th generation consoles


PlayStation Portable


Nintendo DS


Nintendo DS Lite with SuperCard DS Light and MicroSD card.

Since the release of the Nintendo DS, a great deal of hacking has occurred involving the DS’due south fully rewritable firmware, Wi-Fi connection, game cards that allow SD storage, and software utilise.[

citation needed


At that place are at present many emulators for the DS, besides as the NES, SNES, Sega Chief System, Sega Mega Drive, Neo-Geo Pocket, Neo-Geo MVS (arcade), and older handheld consoles like the Game Boy Color.

At that place are a number of cards which either have congenital-in wink memory, or a slot which can accept an SD, or MicroSD (like the
ez-flash 5/Vi) cards. These cards typically enable DS panel gamers to use their panel to play MP3s and videos, and other non-gaming functions traditionally reserved for separate devices.

In Republic of korea, many video game consumers exploit illegal copies of video games, including for the Nintendo DS. In 2007, 500,000 copies of DS games were sold, while the sales of the DS hardware units was 800,000.

Another modification device called
Activity Replay, manufactured past the visitor Datel, is a device which allows the user to input cheat codes that allows information technology to hack games, granting the player infinite
power-ups, access to any part of the game, space in game currency, the ability to walk through walls, and various other abilities depending on the game and code used.

Photographer Steve Chapman, looking for other ways to go on his photography work with smaller equipment, created DS-DSLR, an awarding that allowed him to control his camera without his beefy laptop. When his camera was connected to the DS through the GBA cartridge slot, DS-DSLR allowed him to execute many tasks, including controlled bracketing, custom interval shots, and timed long exposures. DS-DSLR fifty-fifty had a noise-activated shutter control which was activated when the DS mic detected noise.

With the DSi, it too has some homebrew exploits, some of which apply DSiWare apps such as Flipnote (aka ugopwn), sudokuhax, using a game called Sudoku by EA Games, grtpwn, exidiahax, fieldrunhax, 4swordhax, UNO*hax, and an exploit using
Petit Figurer
chosen petit-compwner. There is besides systemflaaw, which uses the DSi-exclusive game System Flaw,

A user by the proper name of shutterbug2000 on GBAtemp has released two DSi exploits, one beingness chosen Retention Pit, an exploit using the
DSi Camera

and the Flipnote Lenny exploit (aka ugopwn), using
Flipnote Studio.

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Xbox 360


has released a version of its proprietary Software Evolution Kit (SDK) for free, to would-be homebrew programmers. This
SDK, chosen
XNA Game Studio, is a gratuitous version of the SDK available to professional evolution companies and college students. However, to create Xbox 360 games one must pay for a premium membership to the XNA Creators Club. Once the games are verified, the games written with XNA Studio can exist made available for lxxx, 240, or 400 Microsoft Points to all
Xbox 360
owners (through
Xbox Live). This allows creators of homebrew content access to their target audience of Xbox 360 owners. This content is available under the Indie Games section of the New Xbox Experience.

On March 20, 2007, it was announced that a hack using the previously discovered hypervisor vulnerability in the Xbox 360 kernel versions 4532 and 4548 had been developed to permit users to run XeLL, a Linux bootloader. The initial hack was beyond the average user and required an Xbox series cable to be installed and a flashed DVD Drive firmware. Felix Domke, the developer backside XeLL, has since announced a live bootable Linux CD suitable for novice users, with the capabilities to be installed to the SATA difficult bulldoze of the Xbox 360. Despite the availability of such a distribution, the Xbox 360 still isn’t considered a pop platform for homebrew development, given the dependence of the exploit on the DVD-ROM being able to load a burnt DVD game, a modified version of the game

Male monarch Kong
, and two older kernel revisions of the console itself.

A grouping independent of Microsoft is working on the ways to run homebrew lawmaking, equally part of the

Note: The hypervisor vulnerability in the Xbox 360 kernel versions 4532 and 4548 was addressed by Microsoft with the release of the NXE organization and dashboard update in 2008.[

commendation needed


Homebrew was since re-enabled on any Xbox 360 with dash 2.0.7371.0 or lower via an exploit referred to equally the JTAG / SMC hack but was promptly patched again past Microsoft with the 2.0.8495.0 update.

Homebrew has now become available on about Xbox 360 consoles due to the Reset Glitch Hack (excluding the late Winchester revision, which fixed this exploit with mitigations in hardware). It works on all current dashboards. Equally the Reset Glitch Hack requires a modchip, soldering skills are a necessity when attempting to utilize this exploit.

PlayStation iii


PlayStation 3
was designed to run other operating systems from day one. Very soon after launch, the starting time users managed to install Fedora Core 5 onto the PlayStation three via the ‘Install Other OS’ selection in the PlayStation three’due south XMB (Xross Media Bar), which besides allows configuring the PlayStation 3 to kick into the other OS installed past default.

So far, several Linux flavors accept been successfully installed to the PlayStation 3, such as
Fedora Cadre
5, Fedora Cadre six,
Yellow Dog Linux
(YDL). The latter comes installed with the Cell SDK by default, assuasive programmers a low cost entry into Cell programming. See also:
Linux for PlayStation 3

Originally, graphics support was limited to framebuffer access simply (no access to the PlayStation 3’s graphics scrap RSX), however some access to the
RSX graphics processor
was accomplished (but Sony blocked this with firmware release two.10).

Every bit of firmware release 3.21, consumers are no longer able to access the ‘Other OS’ due to Sony removing the facility

from the software in an update. Sony said this was in response to several ‘security concerns’.

Homebrew developers exercise take access to the
Cell microprocessor, including 6 of its 7 active Synergistic Processing Elements (SPEs). The Game OS resides nether a
and prevents users from taking full command of the PlayStation three’s hardware. This is a security measure which helps Sony experience secure enough to let users to install other operating systems on the PS3.

The Sixaxis controller has also been exposed to Linux and Windows,

only no driver seems to have been successfully created still that exposes its
functionality, except for Motioninjoy. However other drivers accept successfully used information technology as a controller for gaming and other applications.

In May 2008, a vulnerability was constitute in the PlayStation 3 allowing users to install a partial debug firmware on a regular console. All the same, the debug functionality is disabled, so neither homebrew applications nor fill-in games tin be run yet.

Another exploit was establish on Baronial xiv, 2008, assuasive users to boot some fill-in games from the PlayStation three’s
HDD, although the verbal instructions on how to exercise this were non released at that fourth dimension. Even so, a different person posted instructions ten days subsequently, which explained the exploit.

On January 6, 2009 a hacking ring known as the “Sh4d0ws” leaked the jig files needed to launch the PlayStation three into service mode. Although the PlayStation 3 can be triggered into service mode, it is not yet of any employ because the files needed to make changes to the console have not been leaked.

On August 31, 2010, PSGroove, an exploit for the PS3 through the USB port, was released and made open source. This exploit works on all of the PS3 models released up until so.

A guide for the creation of the PSGroove is available through several online sources.

George Hotz, improve known under his nickname “geohot”, appeared on

Assail of the Testify

because he released the PlayStation 3’s encryption keys, therefore any homebrew or custom firmware can be signed. Once signed, homebrew can exist natively run. Information technology would be difficult for Sony to gear up this because it would virtually likely require a voluntary recall and the virtually expensive parts would take to be replaced.

In 2011, Sony, with help from law firm
Kilpatrick Stockton, sued Hotz and assembly of the grouping fail0verflow for their jailbreaking activities. Charges included violating the
copyright law, and
California’south CCDAFA, and for
alienation of contract
(related to the
PlayStation Network
User Understanding),
tortious interference,
misappropriation, and



Wii Homebrew Aqueduct logo

In advance of the Wii’southward release, WiiCade was the outset site to host
Adobe Flash
homebrew games specifically designed for the Wii and its remote, which could be played without any exploits using the Wii’s
web browser.

The Wii was hacked via a custom series interface in December 2007.

The goal of most Wii exploits is to install the
Homebrew Channel, a custom channel that lets users run homebrew software on the console. The Homebrew Channel’south first full release was in December 2008.

Though Nintendo successfully patched various older exploits to install The Homebrew Channel, many exploits to run the aqueduct on current firmware exist. This channel tin be installed using exploits in games such as the NTSC version of

Super Smash Bros. Ball
, an exploit on the Internet Channel,

a DNS exploit with the EULA, or it tin can exist installed via an exploit in the Wii’due south messaging organization.

Note that but exploits that apply disc games are compatible with installing The Homebrew Channel on the vWii (virtual Wii) mode on a Wii U, with the exception of “wuphax”, an exploit that installs the channel via Wii U specific system permission exploits. The Wii Opera software development kit permit developers make their own games in JavaScript.

The console’s controller was also a popular target for modification.

On Baronial nine, 2010, Team Twiizers released an exploit called
which uses a malformed post letter (Buffer overflow) to load a
file into retentivity, which then installs The Homebrew Aqueduct to run unsigned code.

In recent years, other methods exploiting the
Internet Aqueduct
(Flashhax), the Wii’s
), and the
Wii Message Board
(letterbomb) have been released. In 2019, an exploit using Bluetooth called bluebomb

was released. bluebomb meant that the
Wii Mini
was hackable for the first time, every bit it was previously not possible due to the Wii Mini’s Internet, Wii messaging capabilities and SD slot removed.

Eighth generation consoles




The beginning public homebrew exploit for the Nintendo 3DS, ninjhax, originally chosen ssspwn, allowed the user to scan a
QR Lawmaking
to exploit the game
Cubic Ninja. Other ways to run The Homebrew Launcher have been discovered since so, including freakyhax, an exploit in the Deluxe edition of
Freakyforms: Your Creations, Alive!;

Doodlebomb, an exploit in the and older versions of
, browserhax and broswerhax-forty, both using the
Cyberspace Browser (Nintendo 3DS);
, soundhax, using the
Nintendo 3DS Sound
app, pichaxx, using
Pokémon Picross, unSAFE_MODE, which injects a corrupted WiFi profile into the SAFE_MODE firmware, kartdlphax, using
Mario Kart seven, ntrboot, using an NDS flash cart, and smashbroshax, a New 3DS exclusive exploit for the 3DS version of
Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U.

The majority of arrangement updates that have “Further improvements to overall system stability and other minor adjustments have been made to heighten the user feel” in their changelog are just to patch Homebrew Launcher (userland) exploits that require a specific version of a game or application are ofttimes patched in these updates past adding those exploited application versions to the “IsTitleAllowed” blacklist, which prevents outdated applications on the list from launching and forces users to update those applications to the latest version to launch the awarding.

For example, notehax simply works on outdated versions of Flipnote Studio 3D. In the xi.6.0-39 system update, all regions of Flipnote Studio version <=1.0.1 in USA, <=1.2.0 in EUR, and <=1.iii.1 in JPN were blocked from launching the application, patching the exploit on current firmware.


Unsigned software can exist launched from the SD carte du jour without having to install custom firmware on the device by using an exploit to run The Homebrew Launcher. The Homebrew Launcher itself can be launched on arrangement versions 9.0-11.xiv on any 3DS arrangement. However, without installing custom firmware, the user will need to run the exploit each fourth dimension they want to admission The Homebrew Launcher.

To directly install custom software onto the 3DS home menu,
custom firmware
is needed. There are several custom firmware releases available, the most popular being Luma3DS. Requirements to install
custom firmware
involve using diverse exploits to run a boot ROM exploit called boot9strap, which executes custom code before boot ROM lockout. Every bit of Dec 2020, the latest exploit uses an oversight in DSiWare, which tin run the custom code from the DSiWare menu in the 3DS settings to install the 3DS hacks.

PlayStation Vita


In 2016, an
for the PlayStation Vita was released named “HENkaku”.

This exploit used a bug found on the three.lx system firmware, allowing users to run unsigned software. Information technology was installed by visiting a website and clicking on the install button on the PlayStation Vita web browser. This had to be done every fourth dimension the user turned the system on. In the 3.61 organisation update, Sony patched the bug to make it impossible to run unsigned lawmaking on the Vita. However, in 2018,
student TheFloW (Andy Nguyen) found a kernel bug in firmware versions iii.65, 3.67, and 3.68 that allowed unsigned code to be run. Eventually, he adult an exploit called “h-encore” which allowed one to install the HENkaku hack on later PS Vita versions. The kernel issues was patched in firmware version 3.69, simply the
problems all the same works. Because HENkaku needs to be reinstalled every fourth dimension the device is turned on over again, an optional flasher program named ensō tin can be used alongside HENkaku to flash it into the system, making the plugin stay permanently even after shutdown and reboot, until uninstalled through the ensō installer.

On Feb thirteen, 2019, TheFloW released a downgrader tool that can downgrade any Vita console to an older firmware down to its manufacturing plant firmware.

Wii U


The most mutual way to execute lawmaking on the Wii U for 5.5.5 and below is through vulnerabilities in the Wii U’s built in web browser. There are many unlike userland and PowerPC kernel exploits in the Wii U internet browser. The earliest userland exploits used C code (on versions two.0.0-5.iii.2) and libstagefright bugs (on versions 5.4.0-5.5.1) to load custom code in the browser, with retentiveness and permission limitations.


The first kernel exploit found in the browser, called osdriver, merely works on organization versions five.iii.2 and lower, but this is no longer used as the 5.5.1 and lower exploit is more reliable. Currently, two dissimilar browser kernel exploits are used in the community. The kickoff exploit found works on 5.v.1 and beneath and is very reliable.

The other kernel exploit works on 5.5.two and below, but due to its unreliability, it is only used on five.five.2 to install a Wii U software exploit called Haxchi. When installed to a DS VC game, Haxchi launches homebrew directly (such as the Wii U Homebrew Launcher) using an exploit installed in the game’s file location. There is also an additional, optional, part of Haxchi called “Coldboot Haxchi” or CBHC. CBHC allows custom firmware to exist enabled automatically each fourth dimension the organisation is turned on by running the Virtual Console game directly on kicking, whereas other exploits have to be run every time manually. However, CBHC has an increased risk of rendering the organization inoperable as deleting the Virtual Panel game, amongst other things, volition
the panel, rendering it unusable.

Read:  Firmware Update for Mavic 2 Battery Charger

Recently, an alternative to CBHC has been released called Tiramisu.

Many homebrew applications that run via the Homebrew Launcher have been collected and hosted on These hosted applications tin be downloaded straight on the Wii U using The Homebrew App Store app in the repository.

The Wii U’due south congenital-in emulated Wii environment (oftentimes nicknamed vWii or Wii Manner) is capable of running Wii homebrew, such as The Homebrew Channel.

Even so, vWii is much more fragile than a real Wii console and has a higher chance of being rendered inoperable if dangerous software is used. As well, due to changes fabricated to the Wii operating arrangement in vWii style, previous exploits that utilized the Wii Carte itself to load the HackMii Installer, such every bit Letterbomb, do not piece of work on vWii. The only ways to hack vWii without one of the exploit games is past using applications called wuphax or Compat Installer. Wuphax uses the public Wii U IOSU exploit to temporarily inject the HackMii installer into the Mii Aqueduct so that The Homebrew Channel tin be installed without an exploit game.

Compat Installer uses the public IOSU exploit to install the Open-Source Homebrew Aqueduct from Wii U Fashion.




Nintendo Switch
got its commencement exploit with PegaSwitch on March fourteen, 2017; just eleven days after the console’s release. It was developed by a team called ReSwitched, and information technology tin can be run through the browser included when connecting to a Wi-Fi network with a login folio. Luca Todesco used the aforementioned exploit to
iOS 9 devices in 2016. Information technology did not allow true homebrew to run on the arrangement at the fourth dimension, but it let developers look for other security bugs in the organisation. On October 1, 2017, ReSwitched appear many new exploits and tools allowing developers to showtime working on homebrew programs for the organization even before they could be launched.

At the 34c3 result, hackers Plutoo, Derrek, and Naehrwert announced a kernel exploit for the system (which they said would not be released) and said that a homebrew launcher was coming shortly.

On January 7, 2018, fail0verflow posted a video to Twitter showing a simple side-scrolling text program before booting the system, which shows that there is a way to run code before kicking, opening upwards possibilities for new programs focused on evolution.

A homebrew launcher application has been released equally well,

and a custom firmware called Atmosphere, has too been released.

Access to a Japanese copy of
Puyo Puyo Tetris
is initially required to install a Imitation News exploit to launch the CFW on ane.0.0. For after system versions, the ability to install depends on the historic period of the console, as new consoles first actualization in June 2018 and shipping with arrangement version iv.i.0 have their boot ROMs patched against the TrustZone (full control) exploit that allows CFW to be installed. Every bit long every bit the system does not have the patches (which tin can but exist installed at the factory during panel assembly), the exploit tin be used to install CFW.

On March 29, 2018, SciresM, a respected programmer in the homebrew community, announced that
custom firmware
chosen “Atmosphere” would be released for all bachelor firmware versions at the time.

Firmware to a higher place and including i.0.0 are hackable via a cold boot exploit known every bit Fusée Gelée developed past the Reswitched team. This exploit takes advantage of a issues in the boot ROM on the
Tegra X1
flake used by the
Nintendo Switch. The exploit was also independently discovered by Fail0verflow under the proper name ShofEL2. Firmware version i.0.0 volition be hackable via a
exploit known as Jamais Vu. Atmosphere released its kickoff public build in October 2018, which supports all system versions.

Xbox One, Serial X, and Series S


The Xbox I and Series X/Due south accept a Dev Style which, though intended to exist used for retail game development, can be used to run unsigned homebrew software.

Information technology can exist enabled on whatever retail Xbox console. Dev Way disables retail games and software while enabled. Homebrew software can be developed as
Universal Windows Platform
applications, allowing many programs designed to run on desktop editions of
Windows x
to run on the console including console emulators. In social club to activate programmer mode, one has to outset register for an app developer account, which has a fee of $19.

The Xbox Ane and Serial 10/South have had limited exploits found, simply very few have immune homebrew, and all known exploits have been patched equally of May 2022.

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External links


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