Bangunan Rumah Tinggal Karya Gustav Stickley

Gustav Stickley, 1910

Gustav Stickley

Second-generation German immigrant Gustav Stickley is remembered today as one of America’s leading furniture designers and arbiters of taste. A cardinal figure in the Arts and Crafts movement, Stickley created an authentically American article of furniture designed to suit the needs of mod families. He also founded a groundbreaking magazine, <em>The Craftsman</em>, whereby he publicized his work and the philosophies that motivated it. Stickley’s article of furniture enjoyed widespread popularity amidst consumers. Equally chiefly, even so, his piece of work influenced others in the arts and crafts and building professions, peculiarly designers and architects who were receptive to Arts and crafts ethics.


The son of German-born immigrants, the American designer and publisher Gustav Stickley—best known for his Craftsman furniture, Craftsman home plans, bungalow designs, and
The Craftsman

magazine (published 1901-16)—was a major figure in the Craft Movement in the The states. Through the pages of
The Craftsmanbesides as publications such as
Craftsman Homes
(1909) and
More Craftsman Homes
(1912), Stickley not only disseminated Arts and Crafts ideals, just too marketed his piece of furniture and dwelling plans to thousands of consumers, shaping American gustation and influencing the development of blueprint in the United States.[1]

Family and Ethnic Background

Born on March 9, 1858,[ii] in Osceola, Wisconsin, Gustav Stickley (born Gustavus Stoeckel)[3] was the eldest son of the xi children of start-generation German immigrants Leopold Stoeckel and Barbara Schlager Stoeckel. (Betwixt the 1840s and 1880s, their surname varied from Stoeckel to Stoeklee to Stickley, and by the early 1880s, the family had permanently changed it to Stickley.)[4] Very fiddling is known about Gustav Stickley’southward father, Leopold Stoeckel. Co-ordinate to an 1870 Wisconsin demography, he was born in the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1821; it is unclear when he arrived in the United States.[5] Stickley’s mother, Barbara Schlager, was born to Johannes and Elisabetha Hetzel Schlager in Willstätt, Baden, on September 20, 1828. [six] In the 1830s and 1840s, many Germans set sail for America in search of economic opportunity, including a few of Barbara Schlager’south older siblings. Eventually, she decided to follow: in 1846, she left for the United States with her parents and remaining siblings, settling near her brother in Honesdale, Pennsylvania, where he had started a cracker visitor.[seven] It is unclear how and when Leopold and Barbara outset met, but they married in 1847, peradventure in Pennsylvania, and by 1848 had relocated to Wisconsin, eventually settling in Osceola, where Leopold worked as a mason.[eight] In 1869, the Stickleys separated for a cursory period, somewhen reuniting in 1870 and moving to Stillwater, Wisconsin.[9] The wedlock lasted for a few more than years, but in 1875, Barbara left Leopold[ten] and moved to Lanesboro, Pennsylvania, to be near her brother Jacob Schlager.[11] Gustav, now eighteen years of age, began to piece of work, along with some of his brothers—Charles (1860-1927), Albert (1862-1928), Leopold (1869-1957) and John George (1871-1921)—at his uncle’s manufacturing plant in Pennsylvania.[12]

On September 12, 1883, shortly after founding the Stickley Brothers Company with his younger brothers Albert and Charles, Gustav Stickley married Pennsylvania native Eda Ann Simmons (1859-1919) and moved his family and factory to Binghamton, New York. Four years later, in 1887, they had their first kid, Barbara (named after his mother), who was followed by v more children: Mildred (born 1888), Hazel (born 1890), Marion (born 1893), Gustav Jr. (built-in 1894), and Ruth (built-in 1897).

Business Development

Gustav Stickley outset began working with wood in his uncle’south chair factory in Pennsylvania, an feel that transformed his life, as he recollected:

My first feel in piece of furniture making came when I began piece of work in a pocket-size chair mill in the hamlet of Brandt….It was the most common-identify of stereotyped piece of work, even so from it, I can date my love for working in woods and my appreciation of the beauty and interest to be plant in its natural color, texture, and grain.[thirteen]

Stickley worked for the Brandt Chair Company until 1883, when he founded the Stickley Brothers Company in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, with his brothers Albert and Charles. In 1884, they moved their business to Binghamton, New York, where they established a wholesale and retail business, selling Brandt chairs, Shaker furniture, and other appurtenances.[fourteen] Stickley constantly sought ways to aggrandize his empire, and in 1888 he invested in the Binghamton streetcar line.[xv] That aforementioned year, he left his brothers’ visitor to start a new venture with Elgin Simonds (1854-1903), forming the Stickley &amp; Simonds Company in December. In 1889, Stickley collaborated with local financier G. Tracy Rogers (1854-c. 1930) on another railroad project.[sixteen]

In 1890, Stickley &amp; Simonds moved their firm to Auburn, New York, where Gustav ran the Auburn Prison’s piece of furniture workshop. Using prison labor allowed Stickley to cut manufacturing costs. The practice was unpopular, and as scholar David Cathers remarked, “[information technology] revealed ii traits that would later resurface in Stickley’southward career. The first was his readiness, when it suited him, to flout industry norms. The 2d was his allure to the role of mentor, in this instance training inmates to make chairs.”[17] It also shows Stickley’s early on interest in social reform, which was non uncommon among Arts and Crafts proponents at the time.[xviii]

In 1893, Stickley &amp; Simonds built a new factory in Eastwood, New York. Two years later, in Apr 1895, Stickley made his showtime trip to Europe,[nineteen] where he encountered the art and architecture of the British Arts and Crafts movement.[twenty] Stickley had read the writings of John Ruskin and William Morris and, like many of his 24-hour interval, was especially influenced by Ruskin’s
7 Lamps of Architecture
(1849), in which Ruskin argued, amid other things, for the honest use of materials and the avoidance of deceit in pattern. Although Stickley never met Morris or Ruskin, he likely saw a Morris chair on view at Morris and Company. A few years subsequently, Stickley would produce his own Craftsman version of the iconic adjustable-back armchair; it would become one of his bestselling designs.

Stickley returned to Europe the following year, and when he came dorsum to the United States, he began experimenting with new designs, materials, and forms of production, investing in technology that allowed him to shape forest into imitation bamboo, which had go incredibly popular in the The states in the wake of the “Nippon Craze” following the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition.[21] That year Stickley &amp; Simonds were also deputed by the Waldorf Astoria to brand a set of mahogany pieces for the hotel’southward foyer.[22]

Despite, or perhaps considering of their success, Stickley and Simonds did not last long as business partners. On May 5, 1898, in the absenteeism of Simonds, Stickley proposed that the firm’s lath dissolve the Stickley &amp; Simonds Company and create a new venture called the Gustave Stickley Company. The lath, predominantly composed of Stickley family members, approved the move. Stickley and so fired Simonds (who was the president of the visitor) and made himself president and principal possessor.[23] A twelvemonth later, Stickley tried to persuade his peers and competitors in the furniture industry to merge into a single organization, nether the proposed proper name of United Chair Manufacturers. While this never came to fruition, it demonstrates Stickley’south consistent involvement in not just expanding his empire, but likewise in dominating article of furniture production in the United States.[24]

In 1900, Stickley’s furniture underwent a significant shift, and ideas that had been percolating since his travels to Europe began to take bodily class. Equally Stickley recollected:

In 1900 I stopped using the standard patterns and finishes, and began to make all kinds of furniture after my ain designs, independently of what other people were doing, or of any necessity to fit my designs, woods and finishes to whatsoever other factory. For well-nigh a year I experimented with more than or less fantastic forms…. My frequent journeys to Europe…interested me much in the decorative use of establish forms…. The Arts and Crafts motion was more virtually in harmony with what I had in mind, but fifty-fifty that did non involve a return to the sturdy and primitive forms that were meant for usefulness alone, and I began to piece of work forth the lines of a straight application of the central principles of structure to the designing and adroitness of my article of furniture.[25]

Inspired by his travels away as well as past the work of architects and designers such as Morris, Baillie Scott, C.R. Ashbee, and C. F. A. Voysey, Stickley moved away from mass-producing revival manner pieces towards simpler, predominantly handmade furniture that drew on motifs from nature, such every bit his Celandine and Poppy floriform tables, which plant immediate commercial success.[26] At the time, Stickley as well became an advocate for Arts and Crafts ideals, promoting the unproblematic life, honest materials, unity of design, and greater use of handicraft.[27]

With each passing year, Stickley’s designs moved towards ever simpler, rectilinear forms that highlighted the natural grain and texture of the wood.[28] His favorite cloth was American white oak, not only for the meandering lines that resulted from quarter-sawing the strong wood, but also for its symbolic associations, as Stickley would write: “As an American by birth, I chose to work with native growths.”[29] Stickley, like many others in the Progressive Era, was interested in a render to a simpler and more rustic life, and he viewed native American oak every bit “stiff and archaic” and as a “robust, manly sort of wood.”[30] During this fourth dimension, Stickley also began using ammonia to smoke his oak, in order to finish the forest, and bring out its texture and grain.[31] He wanted to accomplish his “color-effects largely from woods,” and his earliest furniture came in 3 colors—greyness-chocolate-brown, greenish, and a darker grayness. [32] Although Stickley’southward article of furniture seemed to embody the Arts and Crafts ideals of simplicity and honest materials, most of his pieces were fabricated through a combination of handiwork and modern mechanism; even Stickley’south early Arts and Crafts or “Mission” style pieces had hidden screws and concealed iron brackets.

In July 1900, Stickley successfully showed his “New Furniture,” as he chosen it, at the Furniture Exposition in Grand Rapids, Michigan. The positive reception of his recent work led to an agreement with the Chicago-based Tobey Furniture Visitor to market and distribute his new line, which Tobey promoted as “modern.” That year, Stickley expanded his business once once again, relocated his family unit to a larger home in Syracuse, and leased new office space at the Crouse Stables, where he could display his new article of furniture line. The following yr, Stickley exhibited his furniture at the 1901 Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Some of the tea tables and plant stands on view were the products of a collaboration with Grueby Pottery (which also had a display nearby) and perfectly embodied William Morris’s oft-quoted maxim, “Accept nothing in your house that yous exercise not know to be useful, or believe to exist beautiful.” Indeed, Stickley’s early plant stands, with their inset green matte glazed Grueby tiles, were both aesthetically pleasing and utilitarian.

The shift in Stickley’s design philosophy towards Arts and Crafts ideals was axiomatic not only in his furniture, but too in his decision to rebrand his business. In 1901, Stickley renamed his company the United Crafts, adopting the medieval joiner’south compass as his trademark. This symbol, get-go used on the back cover of his catalog
Chips from the Workshops of Gustave Stickley, was accompanied past the Flemish motto “Als Ik Kan” (which is loosely translated “Also as I can”).[33] Every bit Stickley described in his foreword to the first effect of
The Craftsman:

In accepting the Morris principle, the United Crafts recognize all that information technology implies: First: the raising of the full general intelligence of the workman, by the increase of his leisure and the multiplication of his means of culture and pleasure. 2d: a knowledge of drawing equally a basis of all the manual arts and as one of the essentials of a primary education which shall be worthy of the proper noun.”[34]

The yr 1901 was a pivotal ane for Stickley. He not only took his company in new directions but as well ventured into the publishing world, founding
The Craftsman
magazine, which would go the mouthpiece for the Arts and Crafts Motility in America.[35] A skilled businessman and savvy entrepreneur, Stickley appreciated how much business could issue from such a publication. Equally historian Peter Betjemann has argued:

The near-simultaneous founding of
The Craftsman
magazine and the Craftsman Furniture Visitor (also as the extension of the enterprise to include a publishing company) marks the inextricability of words and things, printing and manufacturing concerns, in Stickley’s business; in practice, Stickley presumed that purchasers would want to read almost the theoretical foundations of Craftsman piece of furniture and, in reverse, that reading nigh objects would lead the magazine’due south subscribers to purchase them.[36]

The early on issues of
The Craftsman
were predominantly written and edited by Syracuse Academy professor and critic Irene Sargent (1852-1932).[37] In its first years, the magazine was filled with the writings of Morris and Ruskin, equally well as the American Transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson.[38] Stickley devoted the inaugural issue of
The Craftsman
to William Morris; the 2nd outcome celebrated the life and work of John Ruskin.

AlthoughThe Craftsman
began, in Stickley’s words, as “a modest illustrated pamphlet, devoted largely to an exposition of Craftsman ideals,”[39] information technology quickly broadened to include Craftsman home plans, model interiors furnished with Stickley furniture, also every bit essays on art, metropolis planning, civic life, education, social conditions, and politics.[40]The Craftsman
was prescriptive in nature, advising its readers on every aspect of home life and pattern, from how to decorate one’s living room to what i should read (and fifty-fifty to the blazon of dog brood best suited for a Craftsman domicile: an Airedale Terrier).[41]

An incredibly influential magazine,
The Craftsman
shaped the taste of centre-class Americans every bit well as the designs of many architects and artists. Charles Sumner Greene (1868-1957) and Henry Mather Greene (1870-1954), best known for their “ultimate bungalows,” such as the Gamble House (1908-09), were inspired by Stickley’s magazine, especially the articles on the British Craft Move as well every bit those on the arts of the East, and regularly clipped articles from its pages.[42] Equally historian Edward R. Bosley has noted: “At what indicate Charles Greene began to prune illustrations from
The Craftsman
is unknown, merely his work soon began to reflect an intimate sensation of its aesthetic message.”[43] Stickley’due south influence on the Greenes can be constitute as early as 1902, when the brothers furnished their James A. Culbertson House in Pasadena, California, with pieces that had been illustrated in early

In 1902, Stickley began producing clock cases; he likewise opened a metal store and a short-lived book-binding business.[45] The following year, Stickley made one of his nearly important hires, when he brought architect, artist, and craftsman Harvey Ellis (1852-1904) onto his staff at the magazine. Both Ellis and Stickley shared a passion for the art and ideals of the British Arts and Crafts movement. Although he worked for Stickley only very briefly (he died in January of 1904), Ellis had a profound impact on every aspect of Stickley’due south production, from his magazine to his furniture designs.[46] Nether Ellis’southward influence, Stickley’s piece of furniture evolved from solid, heavy-shaped pieces to lighter forms with tapered legs; the pieces he produced with inlay added by Ellis are now considered by many to be his finest. That year American architect E. G. W. (Ernest George Washington) Dietrich (1857-1924) also designed the commencement house officially called a “Craftsman House”; it was published in the May 1903 issue of
The Craftsman.

Always reinventing himself and his business, Stickley dropped the “e” from his outset name in 1903. A twelvemonth afterwards, he inverse his company’south name once more, abandoning the model of a medieval guild for the more mod “The Craftsman Workshops.” That aforementioned year, in 1904, he began marketing his products under the brand proper name “Craftsman.” While Stickley had e’er used machinery, from 1904 to 1912 he invested heavily in equipment that would streamline his production and increment his output. He now started producing what would be chosen standard Stickley article of furniture: simpler, standardized forms that were easier to make in big quantities in order to run across the growing need.[47]

The year 1904 also saw the inauguration of The Craftsman Homebuilders Club, which published home plans—including exterior elevations, floor plans, and interior designs—for American heart-class families.[48] The Homebuilders Club became an increasingly of import part of
The Craftsman. Each effect contained at least ane house with plans that could exist ordered from the magazine. Although it is unknown how many were ordered or really congenital, they were undoubtedly popular and Craftsman-fashion homes can exist found nationwide.[49] The plans were by and large for pocket-size, middle-class homes. They typically had a hearth at the middle and a large, multi-purpose living space for the family, along with a dining room, library, kitchen, and bedrooms on the second floor. Stickley believed that Americans both wanted and needed a simpler life. In keeping with this conviction, he promoted the Arts and crafts lifestyle and sold house plans that were simple and practical, with wide doorways, open spaces, built-in bookcases, window seats, and porches.[50] The plans, which were free, were easily adaptable to the specific needs of clients and contractors. 1 could even guild Craftsman lite fixtures, furniture, and hardware for the house. Indeed, every bit scholar Mary Ann Smith pointed out, while many architects of the period, such as Frank Lloyd Wright and Greene &amp; Greene, “designed furniture to be used in houses they designed, … Stickley designed houses to fit his furniture.”[51] His sideboards, chairs, and library tables were prominently featured in his housing plans, and his hexagonal library tabular array was i of his bestselling items.

Of all the architectural forms that Stickley published in the pages of
The Craftsman, the bungalow was past far the virtually pop. A truly democratic and affordable housing class, a bungalow is characterized by its open interior, one- or one-and-a-half-story plan, and is typically constructed of natural materials. Information technology normally features shingled, low-pitched overhanging roofs and wrap-around porches. Stickley’due south promotion of the bungalow through the pages of
The Craftsman
contributed a neat deal to the “bungalow craze” that swept the nation at the time; Craftsman cottages, bungalows, and bungalow courts popped up from coast to coast, from Cape Cod to Pasadena.[52]

While the scholarship on Stickley has mainly focused on the influence of the British Arts and crafts movement on his philosophy and pattern, Stickley too followed artistic developments on the continent, and
The Craftsman
frequently featured articles on German language art and architecture, both historical and gimmicky, as well as reviews of German exhibitions in the U.s.a. and away.[53] In 1904, for example, when visiting the German exhibit at the Louisiana Buy Exposition, Stickley was securely affected by the interiors and furnishings that he saw on brandish. Thereafter, he wrote a review for
The Craftsman, describing the designs as of “dandy value to all persons in the U.s.a. who are interested in the industrial and decorative arts, whether every bit producers or consumers.” [54] Three months later, Stickley positively reviewed the Germanic exhibits at the St. Louis Exposition, illustrating the interiors that were on display (such as Austrian architect Joseph Maria Olbrich’s scheme for a fireplace), and using the exhibition as an opportunity to encourage Americans to find their ain national art.[55]

Stickley’s reviews of Germanic fine art were not e’er favorable, withal, and three years later, he was much more than critical of the Viennese Secession. In this essay, Stickley outlined the movement’southward sources, explaining that while information technology had a “certain sturdy simplicity that…seemed to exist in harmony with the German national grapheme,”[56] it was fundamentally English in origin. For Stickley, Secessionist art was “debased into capitalism pure and simple,” and “in nearly cases negative, representing merely a protestation confronting existing forms and traditions, and not the necessity to limited some vital evolution in national life or thought, or the spirit of the age considered as a whole. It had no roots in the life of the people; information technology was founded upon no need, and so it has e’er resembled the fantastic flowering of a parasite, rather than the good for you growth of a plant rooted deeply in the soil of national life.”[57] By and large speaking, roots and tree metaphors figured chiefly in Stickley’s writings, but this is unsurprising given his Arts and Crafts credo and his origins as a piece of furniture maker.

Although Stickley always considered himself an American, as the son of High german immigrants, he was deeply concerned with national origins. Indeed, his German language heritage, as well as his experience every bit the son of immigrants, certainly shaped his views, work process, and politics, as scholar Mark Alan Hewitt has noted:

Like many 2d-generation immigrants, [Stickley] was fiercely patriotic and intensely committed to his adopted land. He valued honest, diligent labor, just also had great respect for learning and intellect. He was a social progressive, but could not warm to socialism. In family matters he remained a staunch traditionalist, clinging stubbornly to Sometime Earth attitudes toward women’s roles and paternalism. And, similar the Old Earth
freigesprochen, he patiently crafted his objects and his life with an abiding conventionalities in the redeeming power of work. [58]

Though he certainly drew upon Old Earth traditions as office of his practice, Stickley actively sought to create new and authentically American homes and furnishings, in many cases incorporating modern production processes. He viewed his products not simply as commercial goods just as office of a meaning movement, sprung from American soil. In a afterward essay that Stickley wrote on “The Craftsman Motion,” he described his company’s growth in evolutionary terms, with the newly constructed Craftsman Building in New York City (1913) representing the “next stage” in the motility’s “evolution.”[59] Employing a metaphor drawn from nature to symbolize his expanding empire, Stickley went on to explain:

I did not realize at the time that in making those few pieces of potent, simple furniture, I had started a new move….To me information technology was only furniture; to them it was religion. And eventually it became a religion with me too. Thus, unconsciously a Craftsman style was evolved and developed, a style that gradually found its fashion into the homes of the people, pushing out a branch here, a branch there, beginning in i management and then in another, wherever it met with sympathy and encouragement.[60]

In 1908, as role of an effort to keep spreading these metaphorical branches and to bring the Craftsman message to new audiences, Stickley caused 650 acres in Parsippany, New Bailiwick of jersey, where he planned to run a utopian farm and schoolhouse community to be called Craftsman Farms.[61] Stickley was infused by an immigrant’southward optimism and by his desire to share his good fortune with others. He wrote: “This is my Garden of Eden. This is the realization of the dreams that I had when I worked as a lad. It is because my own dreams have come up truthful that I want other boys to dream out their own good future here for themselves.”[62] Stickley planned to alive at Craftsman Farms with his family unit and to educate young men about citizenship through work on the farm.[63] That year Stickley also intended to launch another publication, for farmers,
The Yeoman, but it never materialized.

In 1909, Stickley formed the Craftsman Firm Building Company and published the book
Craftsman Homes, a compilation of house plans that had previously appeared in
magazine.[64] Through such publications, Stickley reached thousands of Americans, shaping their tastes as well as the evolution of American architecture. [65] That twelvemonth Stickley besides wrote an essay on why the Craftsman mode appealed to and then many Americans:

[I]t became credible that nosotros were evolving a type of people distinct from all others,–a type essentially American. And the distinguishing characteristic of this type is the ability to digest so swiftly the kind of civilization which leads to the making of permanent standards of life and art…. Such Americans take fundamental intelligence and the power of discrimination, and the direct thinking that results from these qualities inevitably produces a certain openness of listen that responds very quickly to anything which seems to take a real and permanent value….As we grow older we bear witness an unmistakable tendency to go abroad from shams and to need the real thing.[66]

Indeed, the plans and designs that appeared inThe Craftsman
and in Stickley’s books struck American consumers equally authentic and as different from other offerings on the market place. In 1911, Stickley finished construction on thelog house at Craftsman Farms, and he and his family relocated to the country estate. In 1912, Stickley opened another retail store in Washington, DC, post-obit the one he had opened in Boston 3 years before.

Stickley’s abiding expansion eventually led to his company’s demise. The following year, in 1913, Stickley leased a twelve-story building in midtown Manhattan. The Craftsman Building, as it would come to be called, was an enormous complex: on the offset and second floors, Stickley showcased article of furniture fabricated at the Craftsman workshops in Eastwood, New York; the third and fourth floors exhibited textile samples that Stickley had purchased on his travels away; floors 5 through eight consisted of showrooms where other manufacturers and builders could brandish their goods; floors nine through eleven housed the offices of
The Craftsman
magazine, including a drafting room, library, and lecture hall; and on the top floor shoppers could bask a meal at the Craftsman restaurant, where they could social club a Craftsman steak or a Craftsman salad that had been grown on Stickley’s Craftsman Farms.

Past the stop of 1913, Stickley’s company was operating at a loss, in office from overexpansion, but as well due to increased competition, Craftsman imitators, and changing tastes.[67] Ever the optimist, Stickley was non yet deterred, and he made an impassioned plea for his products (and his move) in the pages of
The Craftsman:

Today the Craftsman Movement stands not merely for simple, well made article of furniture, conceived in the spirit of true craftsmanship, designed for dazzler every bit well as condolement, and built to last, it stands besides for a distinct type of American architecture, for well built, autonomous homes, planned for and owned by the people who alive in them, homes that solve the servant problem by their unproblematic, pleasant arrangement, and meet the needs of wholesome family unit life. Big, lite, airy living rooms that foster the social spirit are a part of its purpose; it holds as essential the open fireplace equally the natural nucleus for happy indoor life. The evidently even so decorative woodwork and built-in fittings that aid to simplify housework and produce a restful homelike atmosphere are inherent in its program. The sheltered places for outdoor dining, residual and play, and the healthful sleeping porch which is coming to be recognized as and so vital a part of the modern dwelling are inevitably a part of the Craftsman home. It stands, too, for the companionship of gardens, the wholesomeness of country and suburban living and the health and efficiency which these imply. It aims to be instrumental in the restoration of the people to the country and the country to the people. It is always for progress, for scientific farming, for closer cooperation between producer and consumer, and less waste in both agricultural and industrial fields. It stands for the rights of the children to health and happiness, through and education that volition develop hands likewise as heads; an education that will give them that honey and enthusiasm for useful work which is every kid’s rightful heritage, and fit them to accept their places every bit efficient members of a great democracy. Civic improvement is close to its heart, political as well as social and industrial progress; it desires to strengthen honest craftsmanship in every branch of human activeness, and strives for a form of art which shall limited the spirit of the American people…[68]

Unfortunately, Stickley was unable to save his company. He even tried modifying his designs, calculation ornamentation and painted elements, to appeal to changing tastes in American culture, but to no avail.[69] On March 23, 1915, Stickley filed for bankruptcy.[70]The Craftsman
continued to be published through Dec 1916, but eventually the publication folded, and Stickley lost his furniture manufacturing plant, the Craftsman Building, and Craftsman Farms.[71] In 1918, the business firm’due south common stock was distributed every bit amongst the 3 partners: Gustav Stickley, Leopold Stickley, and G. Tracy Rogers.[72] Stickley briefly worked for his brothers’ furniture business organization, before moving to Syracuse. After his wife’s expiry in 1919, he moved in with his daughter Barbara and her husband, Ben Wiles. In 1919, Stickley and Wiles founded the brusk-lived Lustre Wood Products Company, making toys and children’south piece of furniture. Co-ordinate to a relative, he “never expressed whatsoever bitterness at the failure of his concern ventures,” and continued to experiment with new designs and finishes for the rest of his career, working in relative obscurity until his expiry in 1942.[73]


The son of German language immigrants, Gustav Stickley presented himself as an American innovator, and rarelymentioned his German heritage. Indeed, he not but reinvented himself, Americanizing his own name, but also oftentimes changed his visitor’southward make and identity, in gild to marketplace his products to American consumers. YetStickley’southward early years and his experience as a 2nd-generation immigrant certainly shapedboth his person and his work, and can be seen in his adaptability and work ethic, as well equally his ongoing investment in new products, ventures, and modes of product.

When Stickley was at the acme of his career, his furniture could be found in stores nationwide, and Craftsman homes and bungalows were being built from coast to coast. Through his groundbreaking publication, theCraftsman
magazine, Stickley not only spread the tenets of the British Arts and Crafts movement, just besides adapted and transformed them for an American marketplace. A Progressive-minded capitalist, Stickley sought to create authentically American article of furniture suited to the needs of mod families, selling his piece of furniture and house plans nationwide through his magazine and through specially issued books.[74]

Stickley was circuitous and contradictory: he was at in one case an idealistic reformer and a shrewd man of affairs; he was an Arts and crafts proponent who espoused handmade goods even so utilized the machine, and an ambitious human who promoted the simple life. While much of Stickley’s personal life and early history remains a mystery, his contributions to American design and compages are clear.[75] Stickley was non only one of the key figures in the Arts and Crafts movement in America, but also one of the twentieth century’s most important and influential designers.[76]


[1] A special thank you to Barbara Fuldner, David Cathers, Edward R. Bosley, Kevin W. Tucker, Vonda Givens, and Kristen McCauley for their help with my research for this essay.

[2] Stickley’s birthdate is also listed every bit March 9, 1857, in some of the literature. Co-ordinate to his obituary, yet, the right birthdate is 1858. “G. Stickley Dies; Furniture Maker,”
New York Times, April 22, 1942.

[3] Built-in Gustavus Stoeckel, Stickley’south name underwent many changes, as has been documented past Marilyn Fish in her fantabulous early on history of Stickley. Equally she notes, the 1870 Wisconsin census listed him as “Gustavus.” Stickley varied the spelling of his name over the years, and for a period went by “Gustave Stickley,” until 1903, when he dropped the “east” from his beginning name. Meet Marilyn Fish,
Gustav Stickley:

Heritage &amp; Early Years
(North Caldwell, NJ: Little Pond Press, 1997), 31, note 1.

[4] Fish,
Gustav Stickley:

Heritage &amp; Early on Years, 31, annotation 1.

[5] There are no known naturalization records for Leopold Stoeckel, and information technology is unknown when he arrived in the United States. Ibid., six.

[vi] This, and all of the early family history, is drawn from Fish,
Gustav Stickley:

Heritage &amp; Early on Years. See especially pp. 5-7, and p. 31, notes 1-xi, for more information regarding family genealogy, emigration, and census records.

[x] Leopold came to be with his family in Lanesboro betwixt 1877 and 1878, but was unable to reconcile with his wife. Goose egg more is known of Leopold later on 1878. See Ibid., 26-27.

[11] For more than on Jacob Schlager and his family, come across Ibid., twenty-25.

[12] Many of Stickley’s siblings went on to work in the piece of furniture manufacture, sometimes as partners with Gustav, sometimes every bit his competitors. In 1900, Leopold and John George (J. Thousand.) founded the 50. and J. G. Stickley Company (now Stickley) in 1900 in Fayetteville, New York, in close proximity to Gustav’due south factory. Their designs were often derivative of their older blood brother’s, and may accept contributed to the eventual demise of Gustav’south empire. Their company is all the same in business today, producing traditional, Mission, and contemporary style furniture:

For more than on the other Stickley brothers, see Michael Due east. Clark and Jill Thomas-Clark,
The Stickley Brothers: The Quest for an American Voice
(Common salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs Smith, Publisher, 2002); Marilyn Fish,
Gustav Stickley, 1884-1900: The Stickley Brothers, Stickley &amp; Simonds, and the Gustave Stickley Co. (North Caldwell, NJ: Little Pond Press, 1999); and Donald A. Davidoff and Stephen Gray, with a foreword by Beverly One thousand. Brandt,
Innovation and Derivation: The Contribution of L. &amp; J. G. Stickley to the Arts and Crafts Motion
(Morris Plains, NJ: Craftsman Farms Foundation, Inc., 1996).

[xiii] Chips from the Workshop of Gustave Stickley
(Syracuse, NY: G. Stickley, 1901).

[14] Afterwards the end of the American Civil War, the town of Binghamton, New York, which is situated where the Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers run across, became a manufacturing boomtown, known for producing cigars, leather, lumber, and furniture, which likely attracted the Stickleys.

[15] In his obituary, Stickley was remembered as a “furniture manufacturer, publisher, and operator of the showtime electric street auto line in America.” Run into “G. Stickley Dies; Furniture Maker,”
New York Times, April 22, 1942.

[16] The human action for the Stickley and Simonds Co., and the deed for Stickley and New York Central &amp; Hudson Railroad Co., can be found in Box 5, Folders one and 2, respectively, in the Stickley Family Collection, 1879-1978, at the Benson Ford Research Center, The Henry Ford, Dearborn, MI. Accretion #1624.

[17] David M. Cathers,
Gustav Stickley
(London: Phaidon, 2003), 16. Stickley ran the prison workshop from 1891 until 1897, when it was closed.

[18] There is a wide literature on social reform and the Craft Motility in America. Run into especially: Nonie Gadsden,
Art &amp; Reform: Sara Galner, the Sat Evening Girls, and the Paul Revere Pottery
(Boston: MFA Publications, 2006); Marilee B. Meyer, et al.
Inspiring Reform: Boston’s Arts and Crafts Motion
(Wellesley, MA: Davis Museum and Cultural Center, Wellesley College, 1997); Wendy Kaplan and Eileen Boris,
“The Art That Is Life”: The Arts &amp; Crafts Movement in America, 1875-1920
(Boston: Little, Brown, 1987); Eileen Boris,
Fine art and Labor: Ruskin, Morris, and the Craftsman Platonic in America
(Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986); and Robert J. Clark,
The Arts and Crafts Movement in America, 1876-1916
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972).

[nineteen] While abroad, Stickley definitely visited England and some of the Continent, simply it is unknown whether he visited his parents’ homeland of Germany on this or subsequent trips to Europe.

[20] For more on the Arts and Crafts movement, its ideals, and its international influence, encounter Judith A. Castling,
Apostles of Dazzler: Arts and Crafts from Great britain to Chicago
(Chicago: Fine art Institute of Chicago, 2009); Rosalind P. Blakesley,
The Arts and Crafts Motion
(London: Phaidon, 2006); Karen Livingstone and Linda Parry,
International Arts and Crafts
(London: Victoria &amp; Albert Museum, 2005); Wendy Kaplan and Alan Crawford,
The Arts and Crafts Movement in Europe and America: Design for the Mod World 1880-1920
(Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2004); Elizabeth Cumming and Wendy Kaplan,
The Arts and Crafts Movement
(New York: Thames and Hudson, 1991); and Gillian Naylor,
The Craft Movement: A Report of Its Sources, Ethics and Influence on Design Theory
(London: Studio Vista, 1971).

[21] For more on the “Nihon Craze,” run into Warren I. Cohen,
Eastward Asian Fine art and American Culture: A Study in International Relations
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1992).

[22] Stickley’s predominately machine-made article of furniture from this menstruation was all the same quite elaborate: rocking chairs with acorn finials and upholstered tapestry seats.

[23] The board consisted of Gustav and Eda Stickley, Elgin Simonds, his wife Jennie Simonds, and Gustav’s younger brother Leopold.

[24] For more than on his attempt to create the United Chair Manufacturers, come across Mary Ann Smith,
Gustav Stickley, The Craftsman
(Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1983), 6.

[25] Chips from the Workshop of Gustave Stickley.

[26] An October 1900
House Cute
article promoted Stickley’south new line of furniture, especially his Poppy Tabular array, and brought it to a national audience.

[27] Stickley, even afterward 1898, continued to use the automobile in his workshop and factories. Americans, as has been widely noted, had a strikingly different relationship to mechanized production than their British counterparts in the Arts and Crafts Movement. Frank Lloyd Wright, for instance, maintained that machines, if used correctly, could democratize art, as he famously argued in his 1901 lecture, “The Art and Craft of the Machine”: “The motorcar, by its wonderful cutting, shaping, smoothing and repetitive capacity, has fabricated it possible to so utilise it without waste that the poor also as the rich may savor to-day beautiful surface treatments of clean, strong forms.” Frank Lloyd Wright in Robert C. Twombly,
Frank Lloyd Wright: Essential Texts
(New York: W.W. Norton &amp; Co, 2009), 58. Stickley similarly wrote on the positive and negative aspects of auto production in his essay, “The employ and abuse of machinery, and its relation to the arts and crafts,”
The Craftsman
11:2 (November 1906): 202-07. Encounter also Miles Orvell’due south analysis of Stickley’south use of the machine every bit both a force for republic and a tool of industrial capitalism in Orvell,
The Real Thing: Faux and Authenticity in American Culture, 1880-1940
(Chapel Loma: University of North Carolina Press, 1989), 158-59.

[28] Some of Stickley’s earliest Arts and Crafts tables had inset Grueby tiles. Past 1904, Stickley had further simplified his designs, using the wood grain itself every bit the only ornamentation.

[29] Gustav Stickley, “Thoughts Occasioned by an Anniversary: A Plea for Democratic Art,”
The Craftsman
7 (October 1904): 47.

[30] Stickley, “Our Native Woods and the Craftsman Method of Finishing Them.” In Gustav Stickley,
Craftsman Homes
(Syracuse, NY: Craftsman, 1909), 185. For an analysis of Stickley’s Progressive politics, see Robert Winter, “Gustav Stickley, Progressive,” in David Cathers, ed.,
Gustav Stickley’s Craftsman Farms: A Pictorial History (Morris Plains, NJ: Published by Plough of the Century Editions in association with the Craftsman Farms Press, 1999), 76-85, and also Jackson Lears,
No Place of Grace: Anti-Modernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880-1920
(New York: Pantheon Books, 1981), 59-96.

[31] Historian Peter Betjeman described the caustic process: “Stickley fumed his oak with highly full-bodied ammonia vapors; the 26 per centum solution (household ammonia is four percent) burns pare and eyes and sears the lungs if inhaled. Today, one wears a respirator and other protective gear when reproducing the Craftsman finish.” Peter Betjemann,
Talking Store: The Linguistic communication of Craft in an Age of Consumption
(Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011), 149.

[32] Gustav Stickley, “Thoughts Occasioned by an Anniversary: A Plea for Democratic Fine art,” 47.

[33] William Morris had as well used the Flemish phrase in his home, Ruby-red House, at Bexleyheath in London.

[34] Unsigned, ‘Foreword,”
The Craftsman
ane:1 (Oct 1901): 2.

[35] The Craftsman
has been completely digitized, and is available on CD-ROM and at the University of Wisconsin Digital Library for the Decorative Arts and Material Culture: Image and Text Collections: For an index of
The Craftsman,
see besides Marilyn Fish,
The New Craftsman Index
(Lambertville, NJ: Arts and Crafts Quarterly Press, 1997).

[36] Betjemann,
Talking Shop,

[37] Irene Sargent played a crucial role in the development of
The Craftsman. For more than on Sargent, run into Cleota Reed, “Gustav Stickley and Irene Sargent: United Crafts and
The Craftsman,”Syracuse Academy Library Associates Courier
xxx (1995), 35-50; Marilyn Fish’due south essay on Sargent in
The New Craftsman Index
(Lambertville, NJ: Arts &amp; Crafts Quarterly Press, 1997), 15-21; and Joseph Cunningham, “Irene Sargent and the Craftsman Ideology,” in Kevin W. Tucker,
Gustav Stickley and the American Arts &amp; Crafts Movement
(Dallas, TX: Dallas Museum of Art, 2010).

[38] Stickley’s philosophy was too shaped by the writings of American Transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson: for instance, he viewed
The Craftsman
every bit a “translator,” an idea he adapted from Emerson’south 1844 essay “The Poet.”

[39] Gustav Stickley, “The Craftsman Movement: Its Origins and Growth,”
The Craftsman
25:1 (October 1913): 23.

[40] The Craftsman
covered a range of art movements, and devoted a significant number of pages to American art, so much and so that by 1914, it warranted an index. Run into “Manufactures on American Art that have been published in
The Craftsman,”
The Craftsman
(February 1914): 512-13.

[41] Linda H. Roth and Elizabeth Yard. Kornhauser,
At Habitation with Gustav Stickley: Arts &amp; Crafts from the Stephen Grayness Collection

(Hartford, CT: Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, 2008), 16

[42] For example, there is a 1903 United Crafts Brochure on “The Elementary Structural Mode of Household Furniture” in Charles Sumner Greene’s Papers, Greene &amp; Greene Athenaeum, Huntington Library, San Marino, CA. Thank you to Ted Bosley for bringing this to my attention.

[43] Edward R. Bosley,
Greene &amp; Greene
(London: Phaidon, 2000), 39.

[44] Daniel D. Reiff,
Houses from Books: Treatises, Pattern Books, and Catalogs in American Compages, 1738-1950: A History and Guide
(Academy Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000): 173. Stickley would later feature the Greenes’ architecture in the magazine, publishing the home of Charles Sumner Greene in his July 1907 effect, as function of an article on the influence of Japanese compages on American pattern. See Henrietta P. Keith, “The Trail of Japanese Influence in Our Modernistic Domestic Architecture,”
The Craftsman
12:4 (July 1907): 446-51.

[45] That year also saw the founding of the 50. &amp; J. G. Stickley Company in nearby Fayetteville, New York, by Leopold Stickley (who had just resigned from the board of The Gustave Stickley Company), and his blood brother John George. In 1905, following in Gustav’s footsteps, they issued their ain catalog, with a trademark label quite like to their brother’s. Patents for Stickley family designs tin be establish in Series I, Boxes 1 and ii, in the Stickley Family unit Collection, 1879-1978, Acc. 1624, Benson Ford Research Center, The Henry Ford, which contains, among other things, the fiscal records of the brothers.

[46] For more on Ellis and his influence on and collaborations with Stickley, run into chapter four in Cathers,
Gustav Stickley, 80-101; and Eileen Manning Michels,
Reconfiguring Harvey Ellis
(Edina, MN: Beaver’s Swimming Press, 2004).

[47] For more on the Craftsman brand, too equally how Stickley marketed his designs to the American center form, see Arlette Klaric, “Gustav Stickley’s Designs for the Abode: An Activist Artful for the Upwardly Mobile,” in Patricia Johnston, ed.,
Seeing High &amp; Depression: Representing Social Disharmonize in American Visual Culture
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 177-93.

[48] See Reiff,
Houses from Books: Treatises, Pattern Books, and Catalogs in American Compages, 1738-1950, as in annotation 43, for a history of postal service-order housing designs, besides as a focused study on Craftsman housing plans.

[49] Over 222 different home plans—including designs for farmhouses, cottages, and bungalows—could exist ordered through the Club. Run across also Robert Winter and Alexander Vertikoff,
Craftsman Fashion
(New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2004).

[fifty] Stickley also desired that sort of life for himself, somewhen building his ideal Craftsman Farms in 1908 in Morris Plains, New Jersey. Equally Marking Alan Hewitt described: “From his writings we know that Stickley saw the traditional, Former Earth values of home, family, and agrarian life being eroded by materialism and commercialism. And we know that he associated many negative values of commercial capitalism with architects and builders who did not adhere to arts and crafts principles. Then information technology is consistent with these behavior that the Society House [at Craftsman Farms] be a critique of the complex and overwrought houses that wealthy capitalists of Stickley’s generation were building in the land. His own house would epitomize the simple life.” See Hewitt, “Words, Deeds and Artifice: Gustav Stickley’southward Society House at Craftsman Farms,”
Winterthur Portfolio
31:one (Bound 1996), 45.

[51] Smith,
Gustav Stickley, The Craftsman, 165

[52] For more on American and California bungalows, as well as the “bungalow craze,” see Robert Wintertime and Alexander Vertikoff,
American Bungalow Style
(New York: Simon &amp; Schuster, 1996); Paul Duchscherer and Douglas Keister,
The Bungalow: America’s Arts and Crafts Home
(New York: Penguin Studio, 1995); Clifford Edward Clark’s chapter “The Bungalow Craze” in
The American Family Domicile, 1800-1960
(Chapel Hill: University of N Carolina Press, 1986), 171-92; and Robert Winter,
The California Bungalow
(Los Angeles: Hennessey &amp; Ingalls, 1980). Stickley was not the only person to promote the bungalow through publications. See also: William T. Comstock,
Bungalows, Camps and Mountains Houses
(New York: W. T. Comstock, 1908); Henry H. Saylor,
Bungalows: Their Design, Construction and Furnishing
(Philadelphia: Winston, 1911); and Fred T. Hodgson and Ernest North. Braucher,
Practical Bungalows and Cottages for Town and Country
(Chicago: F. J. Drake, 1912).

[53] Run across as well Earl Sperry’south “The 4 Great Cathedrals of the Rhineland,”
The Craftsman
2:three (June 1902): 118-37; Irene Sargent, “German and Netherlander: Their Guilds and Art,”
The Craftsman
3:4 (January 1903): 201-14; Frederick Due west. Coburn, “Harvard’s Germanic Museum,”
The Craftsman
8:four (July 1905): 490-96; and Heinrich Pudor, “Trend of Modernistic High german Feeling in Art and Architecture made Axiomatic at Nürnberg Exposition,”
The Craftsman
11:3 (December 1906): 319-31.

[54] Gustav Stickley, “The German language Exhibit at the Louisiana Buy Exposition,”
The Craftsman
vi:5 (Baronial 1904): 506.

[55] Stickley, “Thoughts Occasioned by an Anniversary: A Plea for Democratic Art,” 44.

[56] Gustav Stickley, “Secession Art in Europe: its Growth, Meaning and Failure,”
The Craftsman
&#8232;13:1 (Oct 1907): 38.

[58] Mark Alan Hewitt,
Gustav Stickley’s Craftsman Farms: The Quest for an Arts and Crafts Utopia
(Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 2001), 24.

[59] Stickley, “The Craftsman Movement: Its Origins and Growth,” 18.

[61] Stickley published his plans in his mag. See, due east.g.,
The Craftsman
21:2 (Nov 1911): 196.

[62] Gustav Stickley, equally quoted in Raymond Riordan, “A Visit to Craftsman Farms: The Impression information technology Fabricated and the Outcome: The Gustav Stickley School for Citizenship,”
The Craftsman
23:2 (November 1912): 152.

[63] While the schoolhouse never came to fruition, Stickley and his family did build a log motel home and a state estate on the site, where he and his family lived from 1911 to 1915. Craftsman Farms itself is a portrait of Stickley, and embodies many of his contradictions, every bit Mark Alan Hewitt observed: “The ‘Craftsman House’ was thus both a traditional estate firm with Germanic overtones befitting its owner and a demonstration of the moral virtue of handicrafts and ‘honest construction.’ It was placed to take advantage of a rail line (and so that Stickley could ship furniture built on nearby properties), and it had the social cachet of being in a bona fide estate enclave. It is not surprising that as a successful businessman, this 2d-generation immigrant would have identified with the image of the ‘captains of industry’ and their large country estates. What is paradoxical is that he could simultaneously embrace an elitist domestic ideal while also implicitly criticizing the kind of compages that supported state life in fin de siècle America.” Hewitt, “Words, Deeds and Artifice: Gustav Stickley’south Lodge Firm at Craftsman Farms,”
Winterthur Portfolio
31:i (Leap 1996), 28.

For more on Craftsman Farms, its architecture and history, see as well Hewitt,
Gustav Stickley’southward Craftsman Farms
and Cathers, ed.,
Gustav Stickley’s Craftsman Farms: A Pictorial History.

[64] For a consummate study of Stickley’s house designs published in
The Craftsman
between 1904 and 1916, meet Ray Stubblebine,
Stickley’s Craftsman Homes
(Salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs Smith Publisher, 2006).

[65] In 1910,
The Craftsman
hitting its peak with a circulation of 22,500. Equally David Cathers notes, although this figure was “well beneath the level of the era’due south mass-circulation periodicals—Proficient Housekeeping, for instance, at present had 300,000 subscribers—[…] its distribution was equivalent to other national magazines that allotted generous editorial infinite to Arts and Crafts topics. In 1910, to name the three journals that were perhaps closest in content to
The Craftsman,
International Studio
had 12,000 readers,
Business firm Beautiful
25,000 readers, and
Business firm and Garden
34,000.” Cathers,Gustav Stickley, 171.

[66] Gustav Stickley, “An Outline of Furniture-Making in this Land: Showing the Identify of Craftsman Article of furniture in the Evolution of an American Style,” in
Craftsman Homes
(Syracuse, NY: Craftsman, 1909), 156.

[67] By this point, and so many companies were using the “Craftsman” name that the brand suffered. As Peter Betjemann pointed out: “The broad currency of Stickley’s name in fact had much to practise with the enterprise’s’ ultimate collapse, for Stickley’s own brothers capitalized on their all of a sudden famous surname and streamlined production to undercut Gustav’due south prices while copying his designs; the ‘Stickley’ Company currently flourishing is the actual remnant of the enterprise headed by Leopold and John George Stickley. Mass-marketplace retailers like Sears Roebuck in turn knocked off versions of the Craftsman style even more cheaply than Stickley’s brothers. The final irony came in 1927, when Sears named a line of tools with the ‘Craftsman’ moniker it retains today.” Betjemann,
Talking Shop,

[68] Stickley, “The Craftsman Move: Its Origins and Growth,” 18.

[69] For an case, meet
The Craftsman
28:3 (June 1915): 246.

[70] Howard E. Brown, secretary,
The Craftsman, to the Secretary of the Clerk of the District Court, Boston, March 23, 1915, Gustav Stickley Business Papers, The Joseph Downs Collection of Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera, Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, DE. Thank you to Jeanne Solensky for her assist with my research.

The Stickley Family Collection, 1879-1978, at the Benson Ford Research Center, The Henry Ford, Accession #1624, contains business manuscripts primarily from the furniture company of Leopold and John George Stickley. However, a few manuscripts relate to Gustav and his business, and Series one, Boxes 4 and 5, in particular, comprise insurance summaries, appraisals, and receipts in connection with the final years of Gustav’s business concern, as well a clipping from a newspaper entitled “Creditors Force Gustav Stickley into Bankruptcy” from 1915 (the latter is in Serial V, Box, 33, folder 6.) A special thanks to Kathy, and the staff at the Benson Ford, for their help with my research.

[71] The May 1916 issue of
The Craftsman
chronicles Stickley’due south bankruptcy. In 1917,
The Craftsman
merged with the publication
Art World.

[72] See Cathers,
Gustav Stickley, 202.

[73] After his death, Stickley was largely forgotten until the publication of John Crosby Freeman’s
The Forgotten Rebel: Gustav Stickley and His Craftsman Mission Furniture
(Watkins Glen, NY: Century House, 1966), which reignited interest in Stickley and his piece of work.

[74] For an analysis of Stickley’s views on socialism and capitalism, see Robert W. Winter, “The Arts and crafts equally a Social Motion,”
Record of the Fine art Museum, Princeton University34; 2 (1975): 36-40.

[75]As David Cathers has written, his “private life remains obscure; whatsoever personal papers he may accept left behind have vanished, and near none of his correspondence can exist found today.” Cathers,
Gustav Stickley, 9.